Lambda sensor voltage range

Lambda Sensor Voltage grap

  1. A correctly functioning lambda sensor will allow the voltage to cycle up and down around the central point. (This range of movement is represented by the coloured bands at the centre). This will send the mixture first rich then lean again rapidly. This gives the catalyst favourable conditions to do its job properly
  2. The multimeter is connected parallel to the signal line (black cable, see circuit diagram) of the lambda sensor. The measuring range of the multimeter is set to 1 V or 2 V. After the engine is started, a value between 0.4 - 0.6 V appears on the display (reference voltage)
  3. The oxygen sensor is also referred to as a lambda (l) 1 sensor. Lambda is the Greek letter equivalent to L. Lambda (l) 1 is the reference voltage of 450 mV. l 1 represents an air-fuel ratio of 14.7:1 or stoichiometric. The controller will drive the injector pulse from rich to lean and lean to rich to maintain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio
  4. g mixture so we can deter
  5. The most prevalent type of sensor is the zirconia-based narrowband, which generates its own voltage as signal output: useful voltage range 0.1 - 0.9 V; stoichiometric AFR at 0.45 V; low voltage = lean condition, high voltage = rich condition; The rarer titania-based variant does not generate its own voltage, but changes electrical resistance.

The wideband oxygen sensor receives a reference voltage from the engine computer and generates a signal current that varies according to the fuel mixture. When the air/fuel mixture is perfectly balanced at 14.7:1 (the stoichiometric ratio and lambda equals 2), the sensor produces no output current. When the air/fuel mixture is rich, the sensor. Because the narrow-range zirconia sensor can't pin-point stoichiometric, the ECM cycles approximately between 0.8 volts (rich) and 0.2 volts (lean). Stoichiometric or Lambda is indicated only when the switching process passes center at.450 volts From this, the PCM generates a voltage signal that varies as the air/fuel mixture changes. This signal may range from a low of around 2 volts (very rich) up to nearly 4 volts (very lean). At Lambda, the voltage signal generated by the PCM will be 3.3 volts A narrowband sensor works on a rich/lean principle. When the air/fuel mixture is on the rich side, the voltage output is around 0.8 to 0.9 volts, and when the air/fuel mixture is lean, voltage drops to 0.3 volts or less To ­illustrate, OE service data indicates that the ­upstream AFR sensors on a 2006 Toyota ­Tundra pickup operate within a range of 0.00 volts to 7.999 volts. At idle, lambda is between 2.8 volts and 3.8 volts. In the field, we'll probably see 3.28 volts representing lambda or stoichiometric

The ideal mixture is when the signal voltage goes from 0.1 V to 0.8 V or back. At that moment the combustion is optimal and the exhaust gases contain a minimum amount of carbon monoxide. The lambda sensor is only able to detect if a mixture is too lean or rich Narrowband O2 Sensors typically have up to 4 wires coming out of them and as the name suggests only measure a very narrow window of Air to fuel mixtures - around 0.99 to 1.01 Lambda or 14.6 to 14.8:1 in the petrol scale A cyclic voltage output varying between a low value, around 0.2 V and a high value around 4.5 V. When they occur, the transitions between the low and high voltages are quick and generally take no longer than 0.1 s. The voltage peaks appear at around 1 s intervals giving the waveform a frequency of 1 Hz

Lambda sensor testing and troubleshooting HELL

GEN-4 PLX SM-AFR W/ Wideband O2 Sensor MULTILINK -FREEo2 sensor voltage - LS1TECHAs O2 Sensors Age, Their Ability To Accurately Calculate

the oxygen sensor and calculate Lambda and AFR. • Voltage range: 9V - 16.5V • Input current: up to 3A during warm-up, ~1A nominal • Operating temperature: −40°C to 85°C • Lambda range: 0.5 - 8.0 • Programmable analog outputs: 0-5V • Water resistance: IP64 with sensor connected • Communication and setup: CAN-BUS 2.0 Set a voltage range of 1-5V and a time setting of 1-2 seconds and again, run the engine at 2,500rpm. The amplitude height of the waveform will deliver your maximum and minimum voltage (0.1-0.9V) and the response time and period duration will show the frequency (0.5-4Hz). Checking your lambda sensor with a Lambda sensor teste 6 Lambda sensor output signal Sensor voltage (V) Volt (V) Air/fuel ratio 1.0 0.2 0.9 1.0 1.1 of oxygen concentration between the exhaust gas and the ambien The Lambda Sensor, also known as an Oxygen or O 2 sensor, gives a voltage feedback to the ECU indicating the amount of oxygen in the exhaust stream, thus allowing accurate control over the combustion mixture. This is important to minimise emissions, maximise fuel economy and ensure the longevity of the catalytic converter. On a standard Elise exhaust, it is located on the manifold downpipe.

-- Status: OK 0000 72-Door, Rear Right -- Status: OK 0000 77-Telephone -- Status: OK 0000 ----- Address 01: Engine (DL0MA-CAEB) Labels:| 06H-907-115-CAB.clb Part No SW: 8K2 907 115 AL HW: 8K2 907 115 D Component: 2.0l R4/4V TF H14 0001 Revision: E1H14--- Coding: 010C010A190F0160 Shop #: WSC 22145 444 84529 ASAM Dataset: EV. the indicated air/fuel ratio, Lambda value, sensor voltage value or short term fuel trim number would indicate a bad sensor that needs to be replaced. Other scan tool PIDS to look at include the OBD II oxygen heater monitor status, OBD II oxygen sensor monitor status, loop status and coolant temperature. The status of th The Greek letter Lambda is used to describe the voltage range of the sensor when it compares the quantity of oxygen in the exhaust relative to oxygen in the atmosphere. The sensor is made of Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), a chemical compound used to form the sensor's thermal-driven electrochemical fuel cell Lambda sensor signal wire. Have broken wire on sensor signal wire from connecter to ecu mines 4 pin am i right in assuming two are positive and two are negative have tested wires only got 1 live the wire that i think is broken is green and black have traced wire to ecu am i right in thinking that all wires that come out ecu are all different. Vind de juiste Lambda Sensor eenvoudig op kenteken. Bestel eenvoudig online. Professioneel advies van experten over de keuze van auto-onderdelen

Lambda control range λ 1.002.00 Sensor output voltage for λ = 1.0252.00 at ϑ Gas = 220°C and a flow rate of 0.40.9 m · s-1 683.5 mV 2) Sensor internal resistance R i Sensor voltage in air at 20°C in as-new state and at 13 V heater voltage -9...-15 mV 3) Manufacturing tolerance ∆λ in as-new state (standard deviation 1. An output voltage of 0.8 V (800 mV) DC represents a rich mixture, which is high in unburned fuel and low in remaining oxygen. The ideal setpoint is approximately 0.45 V (450 mV) DC Lambda sensor output signal Sensor voltage (V) Volt (V) Air/fuel ratio 1.0 0.2 0.9 1.0 1.1 of oxygen concentration between the exhaust gas and the ambient reference air in the centre of sensor thimble, the higher the voltage produced

The Greek letter Lambda is used to describe the voltage range of the sensor when it compares the quantity of oxygen in the exhaust relative to oxygen in the atmosphere. The sensor is made of Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), a chemical compound used to form the sensor's thermal-driven electrochemical fuel cell Power supply sensor heater: Operating voltage: 9 V to 28 V DC: Power consumption (at 13.5 V DC) 9 W typ. (one LSU 4.9 sensor exposed to air, ES630/ES635) 18 W typ. (two LSU 4.9 sensors exposed to air, ES631/ES636) Sensor interface: Channels: 1 (ES630/ES635) / 2 (ES631/ES636), including control and supply of sensor heater: Supported lambda. The stock oxygen sensor range is usually only about lambda 0.95 - 1.04, while tuning we usually want a display that will be accurate from lambda 0.75 - 1.10 Lambda vs Air/Fuel ratio The air/fuel mixture is expressed either as the ratio of air to fuel vapor or as a lambda value

Lambda sensor HELL

The lambda sensor, also called an oxygen sensor, is a small probe located on the car exhaust, between the exhaust manifold and the catalytic converter.It was developed by Volvo in the 70s.. If you own a newer car, it will be equipped with 2 lambda sensors. In that case, the second sensor will be located right behind the catalytic converter 221 Lambda Voltage Range Bank 2 Sensor 1. 222 Low Coolant Temperature or Lambda Sensor Control (MS43) 223 Lambda Sensor Switching Bank 1 Sensor 2. 224 Lambda Sensor Switching Bank 2 Sensor 2. 225 Cat Efficiency Bank 1. 226 Cat Efficiency Bank 2. 227 Mixture Deviation Bank 1 In other words, if the oxygen content is low it produces a high voltage (0.90 Volts - Rich mixture) and if the oxygen content is high it produces a low voltage (0.10 Volts - Lean mixture). Although theoretically the O2 sensor should cycle between 0.00 volts and 1.00 volts, in reality it cycles between 0.10 volts and 0.90 volts

LAMBDA to CAN Ecumaster Lambda to CAN controller is a compact device used to control a Bosch LSU 4.9 wideband oxygen sensor and transmit the lambda reading via CAN-BUS. Two programmable 0-5V analog signal lines are available, along with the CAN transmission.The controller uses a dedicated Bosch integrated circuit paired with an automotive grade digital controller to precisely manage the oxygen. This type of sensor is known as a metal oxide sensor. Unlike zirconium dioxide Lambda sensors,titanium dioxide sensors do not self-generate a voltage. The ceramic element is a semi-conductor, the electrical resistance of which varies relative to the residual oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Therefore by application of a voltage to the sensor, a varying signal is produced dependent on. This arrangement acts like a tiny battery, and it is this (very small) voltage that is measured by the engine ECU using a high-impedance input. Figure 9 - Cutaway view of a Zirconia Lambda Sensor . The sensor element has two 'sides' to it - the outer layer and the inner layer - which are isolated from each other and exposed to different gases..

Measuring O2 Sensor Signals Know Your Part

What is Lambda? Lambda is scale that relates the air to fuel ratio of ANY fuel. 1.0 is stoic for every fuel. A narrow band o2 sensor is an oxygen sensor that is only calibrated to know three things. Rich, stoic, and lean. it will read a voltage that correlates to an actual value, like 11.2. One thing to remember with a wideband sensor. These narrow band lambda sensors have a voltage output of 0.1 to 0.9 volt. A voltage of 0.45 volt = 14.7 A/F ratio = 45%. Spitronics work in % as this is easier to simplify between the 1 volt and 5 volt signal. This unit can receive a wide band signal of 0 to 5 volts but the electronics for driving the sensor is not built in the ECU Figure 9 - A typical oscilloscope lambda output graph of a healthy sensor at idle or whilst cruising at constant speed (ie. in closed loop mode) - filtered for clarity The graph should peak at about 900mV (0.9 Volts), dip to about 100mV (0.1 Volts), and 450mV (0.45 Volts) should be the average centre point of the graph • The LSU broadband Lambda sensor is a planar Zrê two-cell limit current sensor with integral heater. • It is suitable for measuring the oxygen content and the Ô value of exhaust gases in vehicle engines. • A constant characteristic curve in the range from Ô = 0.65 to air makes it suitable for universal use for Ô =1 and for other Ô.

Lambda as a Diagnostic Tool - Austin Community College

The voltage produced by the sensor is nonlinear with respect to oxygen concentration. The sensor is most sensitive near the stoichiometric point (where λ = 1) and less sensitive when either very lean or very rich. The ECU is a control system that uses feedback from the sensor to adjust the fuel/air mixture That one actually lists the lambda output along with the other fuel types and while in the specifications at the end it says the lambda range is.751 - 1.143, that table on pages 5-6 shows a lambda of.683 at 0V and 1.365 at 5V • Read output voltage Led table: • Fast blink: lambda sensor is unconnected or there is a short circuit in the sensor. • Slow blink: lambda sensor is heating (output not valid) • Quick blink and long pause: operative temperature reached, now output voltage is valid to read lambda value. Output table: Volt AFR 0 9 Too Rich 1 11 Too Ric

Lambda fluctuates with about +/- 0.02 around 1, when the o2 sensor voltage fluctuates with about +/- 350 mV around 450 mV, which with a healthy o2 sensor hapens at a cycle frequency of about 0.5 - 1 Hz Power supply-Input voltage range: DC 10V to 18 V (12V Typical) Sensor-Bosch LSU 4.9 (pumped reference) Free air calibration possible (inbuilt calibration resistor recommended) Display-4 digit LED display, 2 digit floating numbers (3 or 4 digit display selectable) AFR, lambda (switchable) Range-Lambda 0.55-2.00 (digital display), 0.55-1.40.

Oxygen sensor voltages. Production vehicle/sensors, Constant rpm and Lambda = 1. Blue = front 'pre' sensor, Red = rear 'post' sensor . The rear sensor can be made to alter it's voltage by simply snapping the throttle open and therefore commanding a rich mixture This voltage depends on the concentration difference and is about 450 mV for an ideal mixture. The measurement cell is in contact with the outside air on one side and to the measurement chamber at the other The air/fuel ratio sensor (AFR), also called a wide-band oxygen sensor, was first introduced about 15 years ago, and since about 2005 it's Sensor 1 in just about every engine. An oxygen sensor only indicates whether the engine is running rich or lean of stoichiometric (lambda = 1), while the AFR sensor actually measures the amount of oxygen. The following are known good voltages for air-fuel sensors compiled over the last few years: 3.3 V (Toyota), 2.8 V (Honda), 1.9 V (Hyundai), 2.44 V (Subaru), 1.47 V (Nissan), 1.00 Lambda (all European manufacturers) Measurement Range Analog Outputs Operating Voltage Power Consumption Power Supply Technology Operating Temperature Sensor Enclosure 2 x 2.875 x 1.125 (52 x 75 x 28mm) L x W x H PLX Critical Response Technology, Fast Response PID < 0.1AFR (Gasoline) Wideband, < 0.2AFR (Gasoline) Narrowband 10-20 AFR, 0.68 lambda - 1.36 lambda

Lambda 1, sensor voltage is close to 3.3V and no current flows. As fuel is added the ECM responds by lowering the voltage to the sensor and the current drains away. the sensor and current flows to The diagnostic tool used to carry out the Actuation Test is Blue Print's G-Scan - the G. The wide band lambda sensor LSU 4.9 is a planar ZrO2 dual cell limiting current sensor with integrated heater. Its monotonic output signal in the range of lambda 0.65 to air makes the LSU 4.9 capable of be-ing used as a universal sensor for lambda 1 measure-ment as well as for other lambda ranges. The con-nector module contains a trimming. In any remote sensor application it is desirable to be able to deal with the possibility of open connections between the sensor and the control module. The LM9044 is capable of providing a default output voltage should either, or both, of the wires to the Lambda sensor open. The two inputs handle the open circuit condition differently The sensor is capable of precise measurement Lambda = 1, but also in the lean and rich range. Together with its control electronics, the sensor outputs a clear, continuous signal throughout a wide Lambda range (0.7 < Lambda < air) of ≈0.7 m · s-1 at 12 V heater voltage in steady state ≈16 W Heater current at 12 V steady state ≈1.25 A Insulation resistance between heater and sensor connection > 30 MΩ Data for heater applications Lambda control range ì 1.002.00 Sensor output voltage for ì = 1.0252.00 at ϑ Gas = 220°

How do lambda sensors work? - Motor Vehicle Maintenance

Lambda failed low - Sets the lambda sensor failed low value that disables closed loop control. Heater disable temp - Sets the sensor resistance at which the heater circuit is disabled. This is only used in temperature compensation mode and must be set to zero when using an NGK sensor Here's what really happens: The A/F sensor is monitored for voltage change activity under specified conditions. If there's insufficient change in the sensor's output voltage during a 90-second interval of off-idle operation at or above 1500 rpm with a road-speed of 25 to 62 mph, and at least 140 seconds have elapsed since start-up (before. Linear lambda sensor: Range: 0.8-1.2: Span: +0.24 to −0.24 V: Sensitivity: 0.001% of span: U out in air: 2 V: Supply voltage: 12-28 V DC: Response time: 20 s 1 LSB of the digital value, and is often called the code width. The ideal code width is found by dividing the voltage range by the gain time two raised to the order of bits in. Load Dump Clamp : Maximum voltage Sensors Compatible: LSU ADV Number of Sensors: One Free air calibration: automatic calibration available Measurement Lambda range: λ = 0.55 ~ ∞ (Gasoline AFR: 8.08 to free air) Lambda accuracy: ±0.008 @ λ=1.00 ±0.01 @ λ=0.80 ±0.05 @ λ=1.70 Air/Fuel Ratio: Fuel dependent (see lambda range and accuracy.

There are two pieces of information I want to check in this freeze frame, fuel trims and O2 sensor voltage. The freeze frame confirms that the B1S2 voltage is high at 0.87 volts. The total fuel trims are also around 8%, which is way too high for a Toyota. If a Toyota is ever outside of a -5% to 5% range, something is broken. (Fig. 2 Operating voltage: 6.0 to 22.0 Volts DC (ECU shutdowns at 24.0V) Operating current: 395mA at 14.0V (excluding sensor and load currents) Reverse battery protection via external fuse Smart battery transient protection; Operating Temperature. Max operating range: -30 to 110°C (-22 to 230°F) Recommended operating range: -30 to 85°C (-22 to. A novel apparatus, for determining the concentration of gas components in exhaust gas from a motor vehicle, features a lambda sensor element, an electric heater thermally coupled to the sensor element, a control unit regulating application of voltage to the heater, and at least two voltage sources which can be alternatively applied to the heater, as commanded by the control unit

AEM X series wideband lambda gauge P/N 30-0300

Toyota A/F Ratio Sensor Voltage to Air Fuel Ratio Reference Toyota uses a scaled down voltage for the Air Fuel Ratio sensor as seen on your Hanatech scanner by a factor of 5 i.e. a 'divide by 5' modification has been applied to the to the voltage output as seen on the factory scanner Look for rapid voltage changes from 0.2 to at least 0.7. If this occurs, the Honda oxygen sensor is good. If the voltage stays steady below 0.45, it is steady low. If the voltage stays steady above 0.45, it is steady high. Allow air to enter the PCV valve. If this moves the voltage to less than 0.3, the sensor is probably good Elio.Mauro@etas.com i -Lambda Cable Intelligent in-cable-solution to interface Bosch LSU4.9Find out more !i -Lambda Cable 1 Technical Data ===== ITEM CHARACTERSTICS FEATURES ===== _____ Sensor Connection Channels 1 Supported sensor types Robert Bosch LSU4.9 (with RB150 plug, code 1) Heater Control Included Measurement range O 2 : 0 % to 25 % λ. How the Sensor Signals the Computer: Unlike narrow band sensors that communicate to the computer by means of a voltage on a single wire, the wide band sensor uses two wires and signals the computer by means of a current flow. An air/fuel ratio of 14.7 to 1 (by weight), is considered to be the optimum air/fuel ratio

As O2 Sensors Age, Their Ability To Accurately Calculate

O2 sensor lambda wide range (current probe) (Bank 1, Sensor 1) O2 sensor current wide range (Bank 1, Sensor 1) Unfortunately there was no Freeze Frame data as the SES/CEL/MIL was not likely on at the time. I expect that there may be an O2 sensor that is not properly reporting. The Post-cat O2 sensor Voltage did not move, while the vehicle was. A pressure change of the measured gas gives a deviation of the sensor output signal of: I P (p) = I p (p 0) * p/(k+p) * (k+p 0)/p 0. The factor k is dependant on rich (lambda 1.0) or lean (lambda > 1.0) and is for the measuring gas from an LSU test bench as described in section 4.2 of the Bosch document Y 258 K01 005 000e (see below): . k lean = 0.47 bar ; k rich = 0.39 ba The below graph describes the lambda value and associated voltage output from the narrow band oxygen sensor unit. Lambda is a ratio of ratios. Some engine control designs use lambda as the unit of measure for the a/f/r whereas other engine control systems use the actual a/f/r value Settings are available directly in the OBDLink app. You can easily change adapter configurations, create your own PIDs, and edit your vehicle information. Diagnostics provides access trouble codes, freeze frame data, live PID data, and a full diagnostic report that you can save and send to your mechanic.. Dashboards are fully customizable.You can create you own dashboard layouts, selecting the.

Troubleshooting Wideband O2 Sensors - UnderhoodServic

Advies van ervaren specialisten in de selectie auto-onderdelen. Koop bij ons met een korting tot 25 The difference in signals from a narrowband (blue) and wideband (red) lambda sensor. Where a narrowband lambda sensor has a voltage range of 0,1 to 0,9 Volts and can measure between approximately Lambda 0,8 to 1,2. A wideband lambda has a voltage range of 0,1 to 5,0 Volts. This gives it a measuring range of about Lambda 0,65 to 32 The signal voltage of the sensors must be between 0,1V ñ 0,9 V for Zirconiumdioxide and 0,2 V ñ 4,4 V for Titaniumdioxide. If the signal voltage is out of this range the sensor is faulty. In this case, check the supply voltage of the titaniumdioxide sensor from the ECU ( note manufacturer data), before renewing the sensor Sensor`s range from 0.2 volts (lean) to 0.8 volts (rich). Perfectly balanced or Stoichiometric fuel mixture of 14.7 parts air to 1 part of fuel gives an average reading of around 0.45 volts. Because of the abrupt change in output voltage, it is almost impossible to observe the lambda reading at the 0.45 volts mentioned

Clemson Vehicular Electronics Laboratory: Oxygen Sensors

Wideband O2 Sensors Vs

Ecumaster Lambda to CAN controller is a compact device used to control a Bosch LSU 4.9 wideband oxygen sensor and transmit the lambda reading via CAN-BUS. Two programmable 0-5V analog signal lines are available, along with the CAN transmission The lambda sensor's voltage reading should have a minimum reading of 200 millivolts (0.20 V) and a maximum reading of 800 millivolts (0.80 V). If the sensor reading is averaging low (under 400 millivolts) or high (over 500 millivolts), the engine may be running rich or lean because of some other problem This method results in a relatively slow and constant ongoing correction around Lambda 1.00, never able to exactly maintain Lambda 1.00. A Zirconia Sensor outputs a small voltage between 0V and approx. 0.8V, switching from low to high at around Lambda 1.00 The Lambda 4 is optimally designed for medium volumes in the automotive, industrial and aerospace sectors. It covers the full range of infotainment, sensor and safety applications. Adaptable machine lengths and the freely selectable work piece fixture simplify the processes and shorten production time

Fuel control: How to read the air/fuel ratio datastrea

The voltage, the lambda probe discharges, indicates if the mixture, the ECU´s injector timing, is still within the lambda window or not. The upper (and rich) limit of that lambda window is reached when the probe senses 0,8V, the lower (and lean) limit is set by an output 0f 0,1 The HO2S voltage is displayed as a lambda value. A lambda value of 1 is equal to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio of 14.7:1. Under normal operating conditions, the lambda value will remain around 1. When the fuel system is lean, the oxygen level will be high and the lambda signal will be high or more than 1 Voltage Output from a typical narrow band O2 sensor. The accurate range for narrow band O2 sensors is the .400v to .800v or the 15.0:1 to 14.2:1 AFR ranges. Once the fuel ratio is outside these limits, the accuracy of measurement rapidly changes. This is why narrow band oxygen sensor are considered a 14.7:1 AFR voltage switch

Conversely if the fuel mixture is lean then the exhaust gas will contain higher levels of oxygen, which produces a lower voltage output. The normal range of the oxygen sensor output signal is about 0.2V to 1.2V It should be noted that most stock oxygen sensors are designed to be particularly sensitive around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio The control unit adjusts a rich A/F mixture (Lambda value 0,89 = is out off the Lambda window), where the Lambda sensor voltage is at its max, range limit and it doesn't alternate. Closed Loop mode - misfire on one bank (1732/13) Full load where one cylinder on one cylinder bank of the V6 Honda NSX engines misfires.. Equivalence Ratio (lambda), Wide range oxygen sensor current Bank 1 - 4: Sensor 1 - 4: $3C - $3F: Catalyst temperature Bank 1 - 2: Sensor 1 - Sensor 2: $42: Control module voltage: $43: Absolute load value: $44: Fuel/Air commanded equivalence ratio: $45: Relative throttle position: $46: Ambient air temperature: $47, $4 A Lambda sensor measures the amount of unburned oxygen in a vehicle's fuel exhaust. If the oxygen level is too high or too low, the Lambda sensor sends a signal back to the vehicle's computer that tells it to adjust the air/fuel mixture so that the vehicle can perform optimally and within emission control standards LAMBDA is a next-generation pixel detector for X-rays, based on Medipix3 technology.It is a photon-counting detector, making it effectively noise free, and it offers a high frame rate of up to 23,000 frames per second (with no readout deadtime) and a small pixel size of 55 µm The input common mode voltage range of each amplifier is g2V with respect to the IC ground pin This will allow the IC the Differential Input impedance (ZDIFF) This bias voltage is similar to the Lambda Sensor output voltage at the stoichio-metric air-fuel mixture (l e 1) The bias voltage is set by the ratio of CIN and CBIAS, and the value.

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