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How to explain XRD results

How to interpret XRD data/plot/graph in your research paper or thesis? How to draw XRD plot in origin Pro -this video is about drawing graph/plot/diagram in. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis Results and Discussion . While many companies market zeolite supplements, Touchstone Essentials is the only one to offer a full line of independent third-party testing—including x-ray diffraction analysis —to substantiate the contents of the product There are a lot of information from xrd data (intensity vs 2 theta. Intensity represents the atomic position in the crystal. For example if atom in face centre cubic moves to base cetre cubic, the.. Basically, XRD (X-Ray Powder Diffraction), as a nondestructive technique has some functions for identifying crystalline phases and orientation, determining structural properties (lattice parameters, strain, grain size, phase composition, thermal expansion, etc), measuring thickness of thin films and multi layers, determining atomic arrangement Publishing XRD Results Nicola Döbelin ('s humble opinions) RMS Foundation, Bettlach, Switzerland October 16 - 17, 2013, Uppsala, Sweden totally irrelevant to the rest of the world. Relevant Topics 2 - Accuracy of Rietveld refinement results - Graphs - «Experimental» section

How To Analyse XRD Data / Plot / Graph in Research Paper

The coherently scattered X-rays are the ones that are important from XRD perspective. Interaction of X-rays with matter Scale of Structure Organization For electromagnetic radiation to be diffracted the spacing in the grating should be of the same order as the wavelengt X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) is a technique used in materials science to determine the crystallographic structure of a material. XRD works by irradiating a material with incident X-rays and then measuring the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material The intensity deviations in XRD compared with database information indicate that the data suffer from this preferred orientation, especially clear for kaolinite (your green tick-marks). When..

Thanks for the A2A. I'm going to assume you mean powder XRD patterns, as these are the simplest to interpret and probably the most commonly performed. The first step should be finding a good textbook which can fill in the gaps in what I say below... What is X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The analyzed material is finely ground, homogenized, and average bulk composition is determined

- Calculate XRD pattern from model structure - Minimize differences between calculated and measured pattern - Accurate mathematical description of peak profile required: - Classical Rietveld approach: Fit a peak shape function (PV or similar) to reference pattern - Fundamental Parameters Approach: Calculate peak profile from device configuratio An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered at different angles by a sample • The detector moves in a circle around the sample - The detector position is recorded as the angle 2theta (2θ) - The detector records the number of X-rays observed at each angle 2 θ - The X-ray intensity is usuall

X-ray diffraction is a common technique that determine a sample's composition or crystalline structure. For larger crystals such as macromolecules and inorganic compounds, it can be used to determine the structure of atoms within the sample. If the crystal size is too small, it can determine sample composition, crystallinity, and phase purity (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic structure of crystals postulated for several centuries. n l =2dsinq Bragg's Law. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed t The result from an XRD analysis is a diffractogram showing the intensity as a function of the diffraction angles. Positive ID of a material using XRD analysis is based on accordance between the diffraction angles of a reference material and the sample in question. The principle behind XRD analysi X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an essential tool for determining the presence or absence of detrital and authigenic minerals within bulk samples of marine sediment. The method is fast, inexpensive, and a routine part of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) shipboard operations The XRD can be used to identify single crystals, and to reveal the structure of single crystals. It can be used to identify crystals which are present in a mixture, e.g. minerals in a rock. For minerals with variable formulas and structures, such as clays, XRD is the best method for identifying them and determining their proportion within a sample

  1. e composition, strain/relaxation, lattice parameters (in- plane and out-of-plane), thickness, and defect concentration • X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) is used to analyze thin films, including amorphous and non-textured films - Can deter
  2. 4 X-ray diffraction analysis The powder method of X-ray diffraction was adopted in the present study. For this, a Phillips diffractometer PW1730 with a X-ray source of Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.5418 Å) was used. The scan step size was 0.02o, the collection time 1s, and in the range 2Θ CuKα from 5 o to 50(65)o
  3. X-ray diffraction, or XRD, is a technique for analysing the atomic or molecular structure of materials. It is non-destructive, and works most effectively with materials that are wholly, or part, crystalline. The technique is often known as x-ray powder diffraction because the material being analysed typically is a finely ground down to a uniform state...
  4. XRD is a technique used to find out the nature of the materials as crystalline or amorphous. It will define the quantification of cementitious materials. The XRD analysis is done with an X-ray source of Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å). It will analyze and identify the unknown crystalline compounds by Brag Brentano method
  5. May 14th, 2020 | By Daniel Lee. X-ray diffraction is the only laboratory technique that reveals structural information, such as chemical composition, crystal structure, crystallite size, strain, preferred orientation and layer thickness.Materials researchers, therefore, use XRD to analyze a wide range of materials, from powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) to solids, thin films and nanomaterials

Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) allows the determination of crystallographic density and hence crystal structure of unknown crystalline solids. X-rays are dif.. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of thin film of Gd 5 Si 2.09 Ge 1.91 was carried out at room temperature. X'PERT HIGHSCORE PLUS software was used to identify and match the peaks. This search and match function indicated the presence of other phases, such as Gd 5 Si 4 and Gd 5 Ge 3 as shown in Table 9.3. Fig. 9.10 shows XRD peaks of thin film of Gd 5 Si 2.09 Ge 1.91 in brown color and the.

Greater confidence in the results is warranted if both methods provide similar results, while discrepancies between the two methods, when the causes are investigated further, can reveal additional insights about the nature of the material. This report describes XRD and SEM/XMA imaging and analysis procedures for quantitative phas X-ray diffraction or XRD is one such technique which is nondestructive and the sample requires minimum sample preparation prior to analysis. The only requirement is that the sample should be homogeneous in nature so as to provide uniform analysis results even if a small portion is analysed from a bulk quantity • X-ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials H.P Klug and L.E. Alexander Wiley-Interscience, 1974, 2nd edition. • Defects and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction R.L. Snyder, J. Fiala and H.J. Bunge, IUCr Monographs on Crystallography, Vol 10, Oxford Science Publications, 1999

How can I analyse XRD data? - ResearchGat

Let's Do Experiment Using XRD: How to Interpret the

  1. X-Ray Diffraction -- Bragg's Law 2d sin θ= mλfor m = 0, 1, 2, Bragg's Law Note that your measured XRD spectra will most likely reveal only 1st order diffracted lines (i.e., those for which m = 1)
  2. ed peak intensity, position and width, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data
  3. explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed to study the structure of all states of matter with any beam, e.g., ions, electrons, neutrons, and protons, with a wavelength similar to the distance between the atomic or molecular structures of interest

What is X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) and How Does it

X-ray diffraction (XRD), in use for more than 100 years, can quickly distinguish between crystalline phases of a wide variety of materials such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, paints and pigments, and corrosion. 28 minutes Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) also obtains a diffraction pattern for the bulk material of a crystalline solid, rather than of a single crystal, which doesn't necessarily represent the overall material. A diffraction pattern plots intensity against the angle of the detector, 2 θ X-Ray Diffraction and Characterization of Crystalline Materials K. Prathap Associate Professor in Physics, Department of Physics, Christu Jyothi Institute of Technology & Science, Yaswanthapur, Jangaon, Warangal, (A.P.) Abstract: X-ray crystallography is a tool used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of In summary, the difference between XRF and XRD is simple: XRF analyzes for Chemistry while XRD determines the mineralogy.. XRD identifies and measures the presence and amounts of minerals and their species in the sample, as well as identify phases.; XRF will produces and assay by giving information on the chemical composition of your sample without indicating what phases they are present in.

'Prior to the discovery of X-ray diffraction in 1912, it was virtually impossible to prove that any microscopic grit produced contained diamond.' 'There was fair agreement between qualitative mineral content determined by X-ray diffraction and mineral content calculated from chemical results.' This work presents the results for identification of chemical phases obtained by several laboratories as a part of an international nuclear forensic round-robin exercise. In this work powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) is regarded as the reference technique. Neutron diffraction produced a superior high-angle diffraction pattern relative to p-XRD

In XRD, how to identify which peak is which element in a

  1. Thus our XRD results, like our EM results, provide evidence for the existence of two discrete lattice forms in the psoas Z-band, with one form ∼10% larger than the other and with ionic strength varying the relative proportion of the two lattice forms but not their spacing
  2. Without the P the acronym XRD is a much broader term describing all fields of X-Ray diffraction, such as monocrystal diffraction, fiber X-Ray diffraction, the aforementioned X-Ray powder diffraction, X-Ray diffraction on epitaxial layers so on
  3. To start refinement of your XRD data, you should know at least a few information regarding crystallographic structure of the material. Here, in the second video, I explain where and how to find those parameters which are essential for the refinement of your XRD data
  4. June 2nd, 2020 | By Daniel Lee. This is the second Q&A blog from the series of X-ray diffraction webinars. During this webinar, Dr. Daniel Lee discussed how powder XRD research can be applied to many material types such as battery powders, geological samples, powder metallurgy for 3D printing, catalyst deterioration, respirable silica or pharmaceutical APIs, you can leverage on XRD
  5. The atoms in the sample absorb X-ray energy by ionizing, ejecting electrons from the lower (usually K and L) energy levels. The ejected electrons are replaced by electrons from an outer, higher energy orbital. When this happens, energy is released due to the decreased binding energy of the inner electron orbital compared with an outer one
  6. 061004 XRD Quiz 2 1) Sketch an X-ray tube showing the a) source of electrons, b) source of X-rays, and c) explain how the two knobs on the front of the X-ray generator control the X-ray output in the tube. 2) a) Explain the difference between bremstralung radiation, white radiation and the continuous spectrum

2dsin q = n l. which is known as the Bragg's law, after W.L. Bragg, who first proposed it. In the equation, l is the wavelength of the x-ray, q the scattering angle, and n an integer representing the order of the diffraction peak. The Bragg's Law is one of most important laws used for interpreting x-ray diffraction data Calculation Tutorial: STEP1: Open the XRD graph of the material, which is obtained from the instrument. STEP2: Now zoom on the area for which you want to calculate the crystallite size and note down the angle at which peak is shown and peak Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). STEP3: Now enter the measured Peak Position (i.e. 31.8) and peak FWHM (i.e. 0.5) in desire columns of the calculator Your key results should be stated clearly at the beginning of each paragraph. It should serve as the topic sentence (see the TSPU Principle). Support that statement with more detail such as presenting the results of statistical analysis XRD Analysis. The structural properties of the two soybean proteins were studied by XRD (Fig. 1).The parameters of the main diffraction peaks from soybean proteins are shown in Table 1.Soybean proteins obtained through extraction with aqueous buffer and AOT reverse micelles each showed a high crystalline peak at a 2θ value of about 19.50° and a small peak at a 2θ value of about 9.0° (Fig. 1) others, the results depend onthe techniques used oron student ingenuity. Ambiguous results are common. Itistempting for instructors (especially graduate students teaching assistants) totry to put students on the right path by explaining too much. Ifyou dothat, itstifles student creativity and thinking and leads to student boredom

How to learn to read XRD graphs - Quor

Particle size from XRD VS Particle size from TEM

X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD

Highlights: • The crystallite sizes for 183 nanopowders were calculated using different XRD methods • Obtained results were subject to statistical treatment • Results obtained with Bragg-Brentano and parallel beam geometries were compared • Influence of conditions of XRD pattern acquisition on results was estimated • Calculated by XRD. Alternatives to X-ray diffraction Hi, I have done an experiment using X-ray diffraction in order to determine the atom spacing of a certain salt and compared my results to predictions I had made based off of molar densities, in order to determine which salt sample I was using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic secondary (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by being bombarded with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials, and for research in geochemistry, forensic. A long-term goal of those working to describe in detail the nature of the crossbridge interaction between myosin and actin filaments that occurs during muscle contraction is to describe the underlying molecular movements using analysis of time-resolved X-ray diffraction patterns [1,2,3].This kind of analysis is made more practicable by using particular types of muscle, namely simple lattice.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) basics and application - Chemistry

1 Introduction. This document describes the e X tended R equest D aemon (xrd) configuration directives protocols that can be used with xrd: cmsd, HTTP, and XRootd.It also includes the directives for the xrootd daemon that can run xroot and HTTP protocols. The cmsd-specific directives are described in a separate reference manual.. The xrd is a framework that can dynamically support multiple TCP. diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained for a larger crystallite size BTO powder (BTO-m). The sizes of the cuboid crystallites (as determined by XRD and TEM) ranged from about 18 to 24 nm, depending on the reaction time. The evolution with temperature of the structure parameters of nano-BTO was. The purpose is to determine the limits of the application of the most widely spread standardized and non-standardized methods for sample preparation and to shed more light on the possibilities of using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) in soil and plant analysis Lab Report X-Ray Diffraction Introduction This study is related with X-Ray Diffraction to characterize the different arrangements of atoms in crystals. In this study, we will discuss about this particular technology and try to derive some results regarding distances between crystal faces. This is all about identification of crystals and atom forms

How did differing amounts of water in the DNA crystals help explain the x-ray diffraction patterns? The DNA stretched out in the presence of water, suggesting that the water must be interacting with and coating the molecule. As the charged phosphate groups are hydrophilic, and as the water was interacting with DNA on the surface of the DNA, the. Numerous researchers have speculated the precipitation of metastable phase(s) in the early stages of crystallization of lithium disilicate glass to explain the large discrepancies between the predictions of the classical nucleation theory (CNT) and experimental data. Therefore, we have investigated the early and intermediate stages of crystallization of three glasses on both sides of the.

X-Ray Diffraction - XRD Particle Analytica

For the units since you are only using nm in the calculation (via the lambda), your results will be in nm too. Howerer, crystallographs are used to express cell parameters in Angstrœm (0,1nm) although it's not an official unit. $\endgroup$ - Babounet Feb 26 '15 at 8:2 K) Would The (311) Plane In AlN Be Observed By X-ray Diffraction? To Get Three Of The Five Points, Explain Why. (5 Pts.) L) Using Your Previous Results, Calculate The Planar Density Of AIN (311). (2 Pts.) M) Calculate D311, The D-spacing For The (311) Plane, Regardless Of Whether It Is Seen By XRD. (4 Pts.) N) Calculate The Diffraction Angle. X-ray section topography rocking curve imaging was used to measure the degree of distortion [Figure b]. When compared with photovoltaic measurements, the results strongly suggest a correlation between photovoltaic efficiency and the lattice distortion of the silicon which is in contact with the aluminium and eutectic layers The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates.

Dynamic X-ray diffraction observation of shocked solid iron up to 170 GPa Adrien Denoeuda,b,1, Norimasa Ozakic,d, Alessandra Benuzzi-Mounaixa,b, Hiroyuki Uranishic, Yoshihiko Kondoc, Ryosuke Kodamac,d, Erik Brambrink a,b, Alessandra Ravasio , Maimouna Bocouma,b, Jean-Michel Boudenne , Marion Harmand e, François Guyot , Stephane Mazevetf, David Riley g, Mikako Makita , Takayoshi Sanoh Physics 927 E.Y.Tsymbal Diffraction condition and reciprocal lattice.Later von Layer introduced a different approach for x-ray diffraction. He regarded a crystal as composed of identical atoms placed at the lattice sites T and assumed that each atom can reradiate the incident radiation in all directions X-ray diffraction in potassium chloride (KCl) results in a first-order maximum when the X rays graze the crystal plane at 8.5 degrees. If the X-ray wavelength is 97 pm, what is the spacing between.. High pressure XRD results showed the irreversible amorphization of tungsten hexacarbonyl. A solid state vibrational coupling mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of δ(OCO) units. Further, the high pressure Raman results of W, Mo, and Cr hexacarbonyls are compared and the breakdown of the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model in this family is.

X-ray Diffraction @ McGil

  1. a benchtop XRD instrument that is extremely easy to use. Insert your sample, press a button and get the results. Additionally, Aeris is the first benchtop XRD that can be automated with a robot or a belt, which facilitates routine analysis even more. Could you elaborate on the ease of use? I would rather call this term intuitiveness
  2. X-rays can also be refracted (refractive index slightly less than 1) and reflected (at very small angles) • When X-rays hit a specimen, the interaction can result in various signals/emissions/effects. •The coherently scattered X-rays are the ones important from a XRD perspective. Incoherent (Compton modified) From loosely bound charge
  3. These results clearly indicate that the initial material was progressively decomposed into metallic iron, which barely started to appear for a value of From the in situ XRD analysis, we know that the successive phases encountered along the reduction are: cubic and metallic iron
(PDF) Frequency and temperature dependence of conductance

What is X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) SciMe

sample are Ca, Fe, O, and Si. These results confirm or explain the roughness formed in the background of the XRD test data. 4. Conclusion Calcium Ferrite from the results of mixing of Fe 2 O 3 extracted from natural iron sand and CaCO 3 extracted from natural limestone were successfully synthesized. The XRD test results showed thre X-ray powder diffraction is a powerful tool for characterizing the products of a solid state synthesis reaction. At the simplest level, diffraction patterns can be analyzed for phase identification, that is, determining what crystalline substances are present in a given sample Principal component analysis was applied to XRD data from a series of Mg(OH) 2 samples prepared under different hydrothermal conditions from bischofite (MgCl 2 ·6H 2 O) and carnallite (KCl.MgCl 2 ·6H 2 O), owing to differences in full width at half-maximum (fwhm) as well as in the intensity ratio I 001 /I 101 of the respective diffraction peaks. According to the PCA results, the four. XRD Pattern of NaCl Powder Diffraction angle 2θ (degrees) Miller indices: The peak is due to X-ray diffraction from the {220} planes. 18. Significance of Peak Shape in XRD Peak position Peak width Peak intensity Important for Particle or grain size Residual strain Can also be fit with Gaussian, Lerentzian, Gaussian-Lerentzian etc MLAA is an intel and AMD AA solution that gives similar results to MSAA - in theory - but at a much reduced resource cost. Post-processing based. In general, MLAA is very similar to FXAA.. FXAA is essentially free, resource wise, but provides crude AA at best, and ruins the scene at worst. Also post-processing based

X-Ray Diffraction - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

(1) To understand the structural insights and limitations which the analytical tool X-ray diffraction (XRD) offers (2) To realize that Bragg XRD analysis provides information about the average structure of a single crystal, while the analysis of the diffuse scattering of the same crystal provides information about the local structure(s) The xrd is a server that can dynamically support multiple TCP/IP application service layer protocols. It is designed to provide a high performance environment for application services. The xrd is a generalized daemon and it makes its primary decision on which protocol to support based on the name given to the executable X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Laboratory, Analytical Centre, UNSW background radiation to which everybody is exposed from the environment is in an order of 2 mSv/year. A radiation monitor is provided in the XRD laboratory. All users need to know how to use the monitor. The results from lab inspections show on the Radiation Safety Information Board X rays are produced in a more energetic version of the same process. If you want to make X rays, you simply fire a beam of really high-energy electrons (accelerated using a high-voltage electricity supply) at a piece of metal (typically tungsten). What gets reflected back, in this case, is neither light nor electrons but a beam of X rays

XRD patterns recorded from graphite oxide powder and GO

Basics to powder X-ray diffraction: How to achieve high

What is X-ray diffraction, and how does it work? We explain everything you need to know about this technology in our XRD primer. Learn more! What is X-ray diffraction, and how does it work? We explain everything you need to know about this technology in our XRD primer. Learn more Question: Explain The Principle Of Measurement With XRD And XPS And The Difference In Measurement Output Results . This problem has been solved! See the answer. Explain the principle of measurement with XRD and XPS and the difference in measurement output results. Show transcribed image text

(PDF) Oxidation of Aromatic Alcohols in Irradiated Aqueous

Powder X-Ray Diffraction (1 out of 2) - YouTub

X-ray diffraction is useful for a lot of things. Some them are: 1. Using diffraction pattern of compounds to provide information about their crystalline structure. 2. Using concepts of X-ray optics this can be used analysing thin films, crystallin.. (v) Use your diagrams to explain why BCC materials cannot give rise to {100} reflections in their x-ray diffraction patterns, and why FCC materials cannot give rise to either {100} or {110} reflections. (vi) Note also that you now have a convenient tool for counting the number of lattice points (or of anything else) per unit cell

41 questions with answers in WILLIAMSON-HALL PLOTThe calculated (a) and measured XRD patterns of the ZIF-8

Though X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a well-established technique—yet still continuously evolving—for characterization of thin films and diffusion layers, there are two inherent limitations due to the underlying physical principles leading to the diffraction: (i) all data are a weighted integral across the information depth and (ii) X-ray amorphous or nanocrystalline phases are very difficult. X-ray diffraction definition is - a scattering of X-rays by the atoms of a crystal that produces an interference effect so that the diffraction pattern gives information on the structure of the crystal or the identity of a crystalline substance X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is the standard method for accurate offcut angle measurement, and the Covalent X-ray team has worked to detail the process and help you navigate offcut analysis with confidence X-ray diffraction: Introduction to the -2 method Objectives: 1. To become familiar with the Siemens -2 x-ray diffractometer. 2. To obtain -2 x-ray scans from samples of known elemental content, and to identify the crystal structure. 3. To identify an unknown sample. Backgound Preparation: Obtain a good introductory x-ray book such a This is the second Q&A blog from the series of X-ray diffraction webinars. During this webinar, Dr. Daniel Lee discussed how powder XRD research can be applied to many material types such as battery powders, geological samples, powder metallurgy for 3D printing, catalyst deterioration, respirable silica or pharmaceutical APIs, you can leverage on XRD. To watch the first

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