Home

Sharp pain as breast refills

Burning sensations, pain or changes in breast appearance may be a sign that your implant ruptured. The painful feelings are most commonly associated with silicone implants, while sudden size changes are more prevalent with saline. You may have this problem immediately following your procedure or years down the road Sharp needle pain in the breast during breastfeeding may be due to a vasospasm which occurs when there is a constriction or narrowing of blood vessels in the breast. This can be triggered when your baby's latch is shallow. The symptoms associated with vasospasm include painful nipples, white nipples, sore nipples and deep breast pain Breast pain (mastalgia) can be described as tenderness, throbbing, sharp, stabbing, burning pain or tightness in the breast tissue. The pain may be constant or it may occur only occasionally, and it can occur in men, women and transgender people. Breast pain can range from mild to severe Sharp pain in your breast can be alarming, but it isn't always a cause for concern. For many people, breast pain is related to the menstrual cycle or other hormonal changes. Although you can.. pain when breasts refill (11 Posts) Add message | Report. greeneone12 Wed 15-Dec-10 19:37:30. Hiya Quick question. My boobs hurt a little after every feed....about 30 minutes after. and in any case daktarin cream will only treat thrush on the surface of your nipples not inside the breast

Breast Implant Pain: What Does Yours Mean

Sometimes pain can be an indication of a breast infection or clogged ducts. This may occur when milk is not sufficiently removed from the breast in a timely manner, or when an injury to the nipple allows bacteria to enter the breast Musculoskeletal Pain Above the Breast The pain could stem from a bone or muscle injury, Dr. Joy says. Bone-wise, the pain is most likely to result from a rib injury. Ribs that rotate or slip out of place can result in achy discomfort lasting days or weeks, or a sharp positional pain, she says Gastrointestinal problems Acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can cause a burning sensation in your throat or chest — classic heartburn. But sometimes, GERD can cause sharp chest pain and pressure, Dr. Legha says. So can esophagitis, an inflammation of the lining of the tube that connects the throat to the stomach Breast cancer is a malignant disease that mostly affects women, although it can afflict men as well. The disease is related to an uncontrollable growth of cells in the breast, caused by inherited or acquired gene mutations and promoted by numerous risk factors.Every year in the U.S., about 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed in women, and some 40,450 people die from the.

Cyclical breast pain usually presents itself as a sharp pain followed by other symptoms like tenderness, swelling, cysts or lumpiness in breasts right before a menstrual cycle and stops after the period is over. Generally, changes of the levels of the two hormones—progesterone and estrogen are accountable for the pain Chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the cartilage between the breastbone and ribs is called costochondritis. Chest wall pain can cause a sharp, stabbing pain. It's more common on the left side but can be on both sides 14 or, less often, only on the right. It ranges from mild to severe and usually is painful to the touch Noncyclic breast pain may be felt inside, beneath, or near the breast. When it occurs, this sharp or burning breast pain may be felt all over or in one specific area or trigger zone Hormones are making your breasts sore. Hormonal fluctuations are the number one reason women have breast pain. Breasts become sore three to five days prior to the beginning of a menstrual period and stop hurting after it starts. This is due to a rise in estrogen and progesterone right before your period A common condition called costochondritis, which is an inflammation of the cartilage of the chest wall can cause sharp and shooting pain in the breasts. Other conditions affecting the sternum and the ribs like arthritis of the joints, injuries or rib fractures that cause inflammation can lead to shooting breast pain

Sharp Breast Pain Breastfeeding - Is This Normal? Here's

While sharp pain in the breast after breastfeeding is not a very nice experience, it is easy to manage. The pain usually goes away after a few minutes. As your body gets used to breastfeeding, the pain goes away completely Pain under the right breast may be caused by a food blockage within the esophagus. The sharp pain and discomfort from the trapped item is often referred to as swallowing food down the wrong hole, so to speak. 12

The monthly activity of reproductive hormones can impact the composition of breast tissue, which is why many women report sharp breast pain at specific points of their cycle, most commonly right before their periods Breast conditions. In women, pain between breasts may be associated with normal physiological growth of the breast tissue. Breast cancer could be a more serious cause of pain in this region. However, a range of other breast conditions could also cause pain in the cleavage area, including breast cysts and breast abscesses Women of all ages report having breast pain, also known as mastalgia. Pain can occur both before and after the menopause. However, breast pain is most common during the reproductive years

Breast pain - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Sharp Pain in Breast: 22 Possible Causes, Other Symptoms

  1. Hi, this surgery has honestly been detrimental to my mental health. I provided many photos. My breast are the most painful things I have to look at Every. Single. Day. In 2017 (21) I had a breast reduction because of terrible back pain I had since middle school. I had the reduction and now..
  2. Go see doctor: Pain breast can be from any causes- most commonly a non harmful condition called fibrocystic breast disease.Most concerning would be breast cancer - at 33 you are at risk and would need eval with either mammogram and/or ultrasound. There are other possible conditions - such as infection, cyst etc- but you wont know unless you go for evaluation
  3. Lumps, pain and other breast abnormalities affect almost every woman at some point. Usually they are not cancer, but getting them checked out is a must. Most of the time, you can't safely rule.
  4. Breast pain, also known as mastalgia, mammalgia, and mastodynia, is common and may include a dull ache, heaviness, tightness, a burning sensation in the breast tissue, or breast tenderness
  5. Having a sharp pain in breast areas is common among many women. And there are a variety of reasons for it. This article outlines 10 common causes of breast pain
  6. Breast Implants And Sharps Shooting Pain In Right Breast . i am 27 yrs old very healthy, never have been hospitalized, i exercise at least 5 times a week. i have a history (just my grandmother) of.

On a scale from 1-10, SM rates her overall breast pain a 3 and the sharp stabbing pain a 6. She says that the pain in her left breast does not necessarily worsen prior to menses. However, a few times a year, she reports experiencing premenstrual tenderness in both breasts. She has not noticed nipple discharge or retraction, dimpling, skin color. Hi, this surgery has honestly been detrimental to my mental health. I provided many photos. My breast are the most painful things I have to look at Every. Single. Day. In 2017 (21) I had a breast reduction because of terrible back pain I had since middle school. I had the reduction and now.. I have read in many books that when milk is refilling into the breast, after a nursing or pumping session, that some women experience pain or a pins and needles sensation. I have also been having pain, and told that the pain is not due to an infection or anything medically wrong

pain when breasts refill Mumsne

  1. Breast pain can be really stressful and frightening for females. It can look like a sharp pain or sensation of pain and tightening in the breasts. This pain may occur periodically, however might likewise be consistent. In both cases, pain in breast causes concerns and doubtsto whether this is a serious disease
  2. Yes, we were given the incredible gift of life-giving breasts that look great in a demi-cup bra (or running free and wild), but there's always a price: There's breast pain for puberty, breast pain.
  3. Know this: Breast pain is quite common. In fact, around 30% of women will experience breast pain in their lifetime, says breast health specialist Holly Pederson, MD.In the majority of cases.
  4. Joint pain is usually felt on either side of the breast bone. Costochondritis and Tietze's syndrome are two common causes of breastbone pain due to the inflammation of the costal cartilage and joint. Muscle pain, specifically of the pectoral muscles, may cause breast bone pain as they attach at this site. Muscle strain is the most common.
  5. Sharp breast pain in men from muscle strain is the sign of a severe strain or tear. This can be diagnosed from the symptoms of chest and arm pain, weakness, possible deformity of the affected chest and arm. Also Read: Pain in Left Rib Cage. 3. Breast cancer

Pain: General La Leche League Internationa

Should You Be Worried About Pain Above the Breast

  1. Nipple pain is pain that occurs in the breast tissue around the area of the nipple. Nipple pain can be associated with other symptoms and signs that may include breast pain, nipple discharge, breast lump or mass, itching, or skin changes. Breast cancer typically does not cause nipple pain or breast pain, although inflammatory breast cancer can be associated with redness, warmth, and swelling.
  2. If too small, the nipple will have too much friction and can lead to sharp pain, blistering, and restricted output. The nipple also needs to have the mobility to stretch back and forth to signal a milk ejection reflex, also known as the letdown. Too large of a fit, and the compression of the tissues surrounding the ducts and channels carrying your milk out become the issue, blocking the.
  3. or discomfort to severely disabling pain in some.
  4. Breast pain, or mastalgia, is a common condition among women of childbearing age; however, it is commonly described as cyclical or non-cyclical. Common characteristics of breast pain. Breast pain can differ from woman to woman, but common breast pain symptoms often include: Tenderness; Sharpness or burning; Tightness around the breast tissu

What Causes a Sudden, Sharp Pain in the Chest? - Health

i'm 26. i'm slightly overweight but aside from that generally in good health. i have no known history of breast cancer in my family. over the past year and a half or so, i've been getting very sharp pains in my breasts. the pain lasts about 15 seconds and it seems to help if i breathe a little more shallow than normal because i'm not moving as much (but i could just be telling myself that. The last few days I have been getting brief stabbing pain in my right breast. A quick google search told me it could be thrust but myself and my LO and showing no other signs. It also said it could be my let down but it most definitely is not because it feels totally different and happens randomly with.. The pain under your breast will often get worse after eating. 2. If you experience severe abdominal pain under your right or left breast accompanied by nausea and possibly vomiting, you should contact your medical provider right away. Kidney stones. Kidney stones in your right-hand kidney can cause sharp pain under your right breast that comes.

Breast on Nipple Pain as a Symptom of Cancer New

Breast pain can be described as mastalgia, mammalgia or mastodynia. In the majority of cases, breast pain is not a sign of breast cancer. Breast pain typically impacts the upper, external area of both breasts, though pain can infect the arms. Breast pain is most common in perimenopausal and premenopausal women Pain that worsens when bending over or lying down. Chest pain that occurs after eating or at night. If you are experiencing severe chest pain accompanied by other symptoms such as pain in the armpit, arm, jaw, or shortness of breath, seek medical help immediately. Read:10 Common Causes of Sharp Pain Under Right Breast. 8. Shingles near the Armpi

Sharp Pain in Breast: Causes, Management and When to Worry

Types of breast pain Shooting breast pain is more likely to be the result of something benign (non-cancerous). However, it's important to identify what's causing it, so that the problem can be addressed. To this end, it may help to know that there are three types of breast pain A simple guide to breast pain. Breast pain (also known as mastalgia) in women is very common, with around 70% of women experiencing breast pain at some time in their lives. It effects vary, and can, in some cases, make basic functions like getting dressed, walking and simple acts of intimacy very uncomfortable About Breast Pain. To begin with, breast pain - medically referred to as mastalgia, mastodynia, or mammalgia - is characterized by a burning, tightness, dullness, soreness, or sharp pain in the left, right, or both breasts. Left breast pain is just that, pain in or under the left breast that does not affect the right side, causing discomfort in the outer quadrant, nipple, or surrounding areas

Cardiac Causes of Chest Pain. In this section, we'll focus on causes of chest pain under the left breast associated with the heart. While discomfort due to heart disease often manifests as a dull pain under the left breast that feels like uncomfortable pressure, it can also be a burning or even stabbing pain depending on the condition Breast cancer very rarely leads to the sharp pain in breast, but it may do so in a few cases. Non Breast-Related Causes of Sharp Pain near the Breast. Sometimes a sharp pain happens so close to the breast that it's hard to tell if the pain is in much within the breast or even beneath it. There may be several causes for the sharp or burning pain Hi. im 43 yrs old abs for the last 4 weeks I have been experiencing a pain in my left arm pit which had now spread to a pain in my actual breast as well - it feels like sometimes it is going straight through the centre of my nipple/breast and is a sharp stabbing pain Nerve pain after lumpectomy and breast radiation Posted by katrina123 @katrina123 , Jan 3 9:22am I don't know if this has been addressed on this site before but I am having extremely painful nerve pain that goes from my finger tips up my arm

Mastalgia or mastodynia (breast pain) is a common female complaint - up to 70% experience it at some point in their life. It can include breast tenderness, a sharp or burning pain, or a feeling of tightness in the breast tissue. Pain may range from mild to severe and can occur occasionally or be a constant type of discomfort.One or both breasts may be involved as well as and the underarm (axilla) Breast pain by itself is unlikely to be a symptom of cancer. Breast pain is usually linked to periods. Symptoms of breast pain caused by periods: dull, heavy or aching pain - from mild to very bad; pain that begins up to 2 weeks before a period, gets worse and then goes away when the period ends Improper bra support can cause shoulder and breast pain. Shoulder and breast pain are commonly linked to a pinched nerve in the shoulder. This can be caused by overuse, such as those that occur in tennis, jogging, and other similar activities. In addition, a pinched nerve can, at times, be caused by a hit, fall, or other form of accident Sharp pain in breast: causes and treatment. Hormonal changes. Some women experience sharp pain in breast during certain times of the month when the hormonal changes occur. This inconvenience is known as premenstrual breast discomfort. These symptoms usually occur right before the menstruation. A lot of pregnant women experience sharp breast. This can cause sharp pain beneath left breast. One Patient's Experience with Sharp Pain Under Left Breast. I have been experiencing a month-long sharp pain occurring on my left side beneath the breast. It has been associated with sweating, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, fainting feelings, a racing heart and dizziness. Now the chest pain.

Pain in Left Breast: Causes and When to Get Medical Hel

  1. Thrush (yeast infection) may cause breast pain along with other symptoms (shiny or flaky skin on the nipple/areola, nipple pain) but breast pain is unlikely to be the only symptom of thrush. More resources: Breast pain from La Leche League International; Berens P, et al. ABM Clinical Protocol #26: Persistent Pain with Breastfeeding. Breastfeed.
  2. Sharp pain in right breast. Localized pain occurring in your abdomen or chest may or may not be related to a serious underlying health condition. But, you should find out what causes this pain, to ensure that the correct measures are taken so as to treat the condition before it become severe. It is not uncommon to experience sharp pain in right.
  3. The sharp shooting ear pain could originate in the outer or middle ear if you have a bacterial or viral infection there. Or, the painful stabbing sensation could originate in the inner ear if there is inflammation. Most of the time sharp pain in one or both ears is due to an infection in your respiratory system that also affects your ears
  4. Breast pain can present in many different ways, Dennis Holmes, M.D., breast cancer surgeon and researcher, and interim director of the Margie Petersen Breast Center at John Wayne Cancer Institute.
  5. After having breast cancer surgery, some women have problems with nerve (neuropathic) pain in the chest wall, armpit, and/or arm that doesn't go away over time. This is called post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) because it was first noticed in women who had mastectomies, but it can also happen after other types of breast-conserving surgery.
  6. Sharp pain in the breast is not always an indicator of cancer. There are a plethora of reasons that cause a Shooting Pain in Breast area. Contents. 0.1 Breast Pain or Mastalgia: 0.2 5 categories of causes for shooting Pain in Breast: 0.2.1 Related to the menstrual cycle: 0.2.1.1 A. During menstrual cycle
  7. Most cases of sharp breast pain before your period are caused by fluctuating levels of hormones. The levels of hormones estrogen and progesterone change during your normal menstrual cycle. These hormones prepare your reproductive system and breasts for a potential pregnancy. Estrogen causes the breast ducts to enlarge

For more information on our pharmacy services, call your nearest pharmacy or simply stop by. And if you're a Sharp Account user, log in to save your prescription information for future refills.. Here to help you get what you need. At Sharp Rees-Stealy Pharmacies, we make sure you receive seamless care from start to finish This sharp pain in the breast is a shooting pain that is localized to one small pea sized lump in the breast. The most common cause is fibrocystic breast disease, or breast cyst. A breast cyst is merely a fluid filled space surrounded by a membrane. It is like a grape. Fibrocystic breast disease is a liquid bubble surrounded by a thin membrane

If you notice a lump in your breast, don't panic. Start by reading this guide to breast cancer symptoms, like itching, redness, pain, and more, to help you know when to see a doctor 5. Coping with chest wall pain. Any type of breast pain can be very distressing, and many women worry they may have breast cancer. However, in most cases pain in the breast isn't a sign of breast cancer. Having breast pain doesn't increase your risk of breast cancer Thank you for allowing Sharp and Stone OB/Gyn to provide your care. Where to Find Us. 2700 10th Avenue South Building 2, Suite 306 Birmingham, AL 35205 Phone: (205) 933-4020 Fax: (205) 933-4022. Get Direction

Breast Pain: Causes, Treatment, and When to See a Docto

Sharp HealthCare is San Diego's health care leader with hospitals in San Diego, affiliated medical groups, urgent care centers and a health plan. Sharp provides medical services in virtually all fields of medicine, including primary care, heart care, cancer treatment, orthopedics and women's health. Looking for San Diego doctors? Seeking nursing jobs in San Diego However, pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and women undergoing mastectomy and breast reconstruction experience postoperative pain syndromes in approximately one-half of all cases. Patients post mastectomy and breast reconstruction can suffer from acute nociceptive pain and chronic neuropathic pain syndromes

Breast Pain: 10 Reasons Your Breasts May Hurt Johns

Breast pain, also known as mastalgia, is a very common complaint among women, especially during the menstrual cycle. According to California Pacific Medical Center, breast pain affects 50 to 70 percent of women. Some of the signs of mastalgia are stabbing pain, heaviness, soreness, tenderness and swelling in both breasts. The pain may be mild [ Applying a cabbage wrap on your breast will have a soothing and healing effect and soothes sharp breast pain pregnancy. You can make a wrap by separating the leaves of a cabbage and boiling them for 3-5 minutes. Then take a single leaf and wrap it on your breast. Repeat it twice daily for pain relief

Breast pain—known as mastalgia, if you really want to get formal—may affect up to 70 percent of women in their lifetime, according to the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The.. If a woman has costochondritis, she will feel a sharp pain under the right breast whenever she laughs, cough, sneeze, reach for something, or any strenuous activity

You might feel a sharp pain under the left rib if you take a deep breath which can worsen while coughing or sneezing. Costochondritis can happen due to an injury, infection and in rare cases. Many women will experience breast pain (known as mastalgia) during their lives; this pain may vary from an ache to a stabbing sensation. It is important to remember that breast pain alone is rarely a sign of breast cancer. Breast pain can be divided into two types called cyclic and non-cyclic pain Acid reflux Acid reflux normally results in a sharp pain that starts from the epigastric region and proceeds upwards along the esophagus. This is commonly known as gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) Deep breast pain and shooting pains in the breast are often difficult to understand and treat. Sometimes deep breast pain or shooting pains through the breast tissue may be due to yeast infection (sometimes called ductal thrush) or a bacterial infection (mastitis). Ductal spasms, called refilling pain are thought to be from the milk. Your heart is placed in the left/center of your chest, so it can obviously raise concern when you're feeling sharp pains near your left breastbone. If you're experiencing pain or symptoms of a..

Thankfully, breast pain after breastfeeding can be treated. Start by discussing your symptoms with your doctor to rule out infections or receive proper prescriptions if needed. At home, experiment with applying heat to your breasts, like massaging with a warm cloth during nursing or taking a hot shower Fibrocystic breasts are not necessarily linked to breast cancer, and the lumps are fluid filled cysts rather than a mass of cells. Fibrocystic breast changes are also a common cause of breast pain. Fibrocystic breast tissue contains lumps that tend to be more tender just before your menstrual period. Certain Medications May Cause Breast Pain Cyclic breast pain: Cyclic mastalgia affects women in their 20s, 30s, or 40s, while they are still menstruating. This pain occurs toward the end of the menstrual cycle in the week or so before you get your period. The breasts are often painful, tender, and swollen at this time, but symptoms improve at other points in the cycle.. Breast pain or Mastalgia is a common phenomenon among women. It can be in the form of a minor ache or could be a significant stabbing sensation. Shooting pain in breast occurs especially after heavy or long hours of work. You experience it during the menstrual cycle In some muscular pain e.g. a strain, but most people feel their colon cramping, it makes a bend there the splenic flexure as a sign of irritable bowel syndrome, of just being constipated. It sometimes happens after having a meal, the Gastrocolic r..

If you need a mammogram, that can squeeze your breast a little, but your consultant may not even request one of these if an infection is diagnosed and, s/he knows that you are sore. The best thing to learn early on is to try your best not to worry about what you know nothing about. Take things day by day and one step at a time I have two lumps in my left breast. Sometimes, I feel sharp pain in my breast, and my left armpit is hurting. Also, when I breathe in deeply and breathe out, my left breast is hurting. Do these pain r read mor

sharp pain under left breast $99 for entire year supply of 1 per Day! Bariatric Multivitamins! sharp pain under left breast. By ishary, February 16, 2010 in POST-Operation Weight Loss Surgery Q&A. Sign in to follow this . Followers 7. Recommended Posts. ishary 0 ishary 0 Guest; Pre Op; 0 283 posts. Breast pain is extremely common; however it is also the source of much concern among women. The medical term for breast pain is mastalgia or mastodynia. The pain is often cyclic, which means that it occurs in relation to (often just before) the menstrual period, and is related to changes in the level of estrogen and progesterone Breast pain usually is described as dull, a heavy ache, burning or sore. It often is accompanied by breast swelling or lumpiness. Chest pain associated with a heart attack: Feels like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, tightness, fullness or pain in the center of the chest PMPS is generally defined as nerve-related pain that persists for at least three months after breast cancer surgery, though it can take up to six months to develop. It tends to occur in the upper chest or the underside of the arm, causing pain that women often describe as burning or shooting, and it sometimes presents, as it did in my sister. Sharp back pain that shoots down through the buttocks into the legs, called sciatica, is a common symptom of a herniated disk. Compression fracture . This term refers to a fracture of the spine.

Breast augmentation pain. After a cosmetic breast augmentation surgery, there are two types of pain patients should be aware of. Normal post-breast-enlargement pain. This type of pain is the pain associated with the placement of a saline or silicone implant under the skin and muscles of the chest, and it is common to all breast augmentation. Costochondritis refers to pain in the chest wall due to inflammation in the costal cartilages that joins the ribs with the breast bones. Costochondral junctions may also inflame due to a viral, fungal, bacterial respiratory infection. Costochondritis generally affects women more than men. Costochondritis occurs after the age of 40

What Can Cause Shooting Pain in Breast

Breast pain (mastalgia) is the most common breast related complaint among women; nearly 70% of women experience breast pain at some point in their lives. Breast pain may occur in one or both breasts or in the underarm (axilla) region of the body. The severity of breast pain varies from woman to woman; approximately 15% of women require treatment Sharp pain under left breast a very common problem or symptom that many people experience. It can be caused by a wide range of problems ranging from mild gastric upset or gastritis to more serious problems like heart ailments. But, in the majority of people, sharp pain under But, in the majority of people, sharp [ Sharp pain under right breast is a condition which people feel sometimes but lack the probable causes of it. In some conditions the pain gets too intense that you might feel something serious is going on inside the body. in majority of the cases however the pain under right breast is caused by some temporary conditions like bloating and the treatment of such temporary cause is easy as well Described as a sharp, stabbing or burning sensation in the breast, the pain is most often found after age 30. This pain has been linked to fluid-filled cysts, fibroadenomas, duct ectasia, mastitis, injury and breast abscesses

  • Speed reading app Mac.
  • Through blank populations of organisms adapt to their environment.
  • Armani Exchange Login.
  • Metamucil capsules review.
  • TI 89 price.
  • C7 Corvette manual transmission problems.
  • Live in Nevada work in California.
  • Types of electronic communication in healthcare.
  • Human embryo development stages Worksheet.
  • COPD spirometry results example.
  • Impact of weather and climate on tourist destination PPT.
  • Why is there life on Earth answer.
  • Eew or eww.
  • My Visual Studio subscription.
  • Toronto rappers.
  • Wisconsin registered voters list.
  • Blue veins on palms of hands after shower.
  • Marieta Severo Instagram.
  • Batch convert DWF to PDF.
  • Routerlogin dev malware.
  • Condo address Unit or APT.
  • Mini corn on the cob.
  • Calculate elevation from latitude and longitude.
  • Microliter to mg/l.
  • Stages of getting abs female.
  • Tennis rating Conversion Chart.
  • Barbers open in barry.
  • Checker Cab Book online.
  • Are you stupid in Japanese.
  • Flexslider thumbnail slider CodePen.
  • What time of day does unemployment get deposited.
  • Picky toddler constipation.
  • FIFA 17 servers.
  • How to make a buckyball out of toothpicks.
  • Long leaf pine straw Near me.
  • Loyola NCLEX pass rate.
  • Ipad settings > general.
  • Ebola testing methods.
  • ASUS Quiet Fan download.
  • How do I contact Amazon Prime by phone.
  • 11x17 Poster Board.